Global Standards for the Microelectronics Industry
absolute maximum rating
Synonym for "maximum rating".References:
A BiCMOS series that includes devices whose input logic levels are TTL-compatible and whose outputs are specified at TTL levels.References:
A circuit that produces, from an ac input, an ac output that is proportional to a control input.References:
ac noise margin
The maximum transient or pulse voltage amplitude of extraneous signal that can be algebraically added to the noise-free worst-case input level without causing the output voltage to deviate from the allowable logic voltage level.References:
A terminal that is to be connected to the ac circuit.References:
The process of verifying the specified timing of a device.
NOTE Testing of propagation delays, minimum setup and hold times, minimum pulse durations, etc., can be performed by using test vectors applied at the specified operating frequency of the device. Propagation delays of critical logic paths for system operation can be measured individually.References:
ac unbalanced voltage
The difference between the peak values of the ac voltages at the two outputs when the circuit is operating in the maximum-output-voltage-swing condition.References:
accelerated ELF test time (tA)
The duration of the accelerated ELF test.References:
accelerated soft error rate (ASER)
An error rate obtained in the presence of an ionizing radiation source.References:
acceleration factor (A, AF)
For a given failure mechanism, the ratio of the time it takes for a certain fraction of the population to fail, following application of one stress or use condition, to the corresponding time at a more severe stress or use condition.
NOTE 1 Times are generally derived from modeled time-to-failure distributions (lognormal, Weibull, exponential, etc.).
NOTE 2 Acceleration factors can be calculated for temperature, electrical, mechanical, environmental, or other stresses that can affect the reliability of a device.
NOTE 3 Acceleration factors are a function of one or more of the basic stresses that can cause one or more failure mechanisms. For example, a plot of the natural log of the time-to-failure for a cumulative constant percentage failed (e.g., 50%) at multiple stress temperatures as a function of 1/kT, the reciprocal of the product of Boltzmann’s constant in electronvolts per kelvin and the absolute temperature in kelvins, is linear if one and only one failure mechanism is involved. The best-fit linear slope is equal to the apparent activation energy in electronvolts.
NOTE 4 The abbreviation AF is often used in place of the symbol A.References:
acceleration factor, stress (Af)
The acceleration factor due to the presence of some stress (e.g., current density, electric field, humidity, temperature cycling).References:
acceleration factor, temperature (AT)
The acceleration factor due to changes in temperature.
NOTE 1 This is the acceleration factor most often referenced. The Arrhenius equation for reliability is commonly used to calculate the acceleration factor that applies to the acceleration of time-to-failure distributions for microcircuits and other semiconductor devices:
AT = λT1/ λT2 = exp[(-Ea/k)(1/T1 - 1/T2)]
Ea is the activation energy (eV);
k is Boltzmann's constant (8.62 × 10-5 eV/K);
T1 is the absolute temperature of test 1 (K);
T2 is the absolute temperature of test 2 (K);
λT1 is the observed failure rate at test temperature T1 (h-1);
λT2 is the observed failure rate at the test temperature T2 n(h-1).
NOTE 2 Other acceleration factors can be calculated for electrical, mechanical, environmental, and other stresses that can affect the reliability of a device. Acceleration factors can be a function of one or more of the basic stresses. A plot of the reciprocal of absolute temperature, 1/T (K), versus the log of percent failed is linear for the lognormal distribution.
NOTE 3 λs = λt ∙ AT, where λs is the quoted (predicted) system failure rate at some system temperature Ts and λt is the observed failure rate at some test temperature Tt, and AT is the temperature acceleration factor due to the change from Tt to Ts.References:
acceleration factor, voltage (AV)
The acceleration factor due to changes in voltage.References:
A mathematical formulation of the relationship between (1) the rate (speed) of a degradation mechanism or the time-to-failure and (2) the conditions or stresses that caused the degradation.References:
The maximum number of nonconforming components in the sample for which acceptance of the lot is allowed under the sampling plan.References:
A sampling inspection or series of sampling inspections used to determine the suitability of a lot of material for shipment.References:
The time interval between the application of a specific input pulse and the availability of valid signals at an output.References:
A register in which one operand of an operation can be stored and subsequently replaced by the result of another operation. (Ref. IEC 824.)References:
The difference between the sample estimate and the population parameter being estimated.References:
acoustic data, A-mode
Acoustic data collected at the smallest X-Y-Z region defined by the limitations of the given acoustic microscope. An A-mode display contains amplitude and phase/polarity information as a function of time of flight at a single point in the X-Y plane.
Example of A-mode displayReferences: