Global Standards for the Microelectronics Industry
See "refresh (F)".References:
(1) The loss of the ability of a component to meet the electrical or physical performance specifications that (by design or testing) it was intended to meet.
(2) A component that has failed.
(3) The lack of the ability of a component to meet the electrical or physical performance specifications that (by design or testing) it was intended to meet. (Adapted from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.)References:
(1) A methodical process of testing, dissecting, and inspecting a semiconductor device that is suspected of malfunctioning with the goals of locating the failure site and determining the cause of failure.
(2) Investigation to determine the failure mechanism of an electrical or visual/mechanical nonconforming component.References:
A person, employed by either the manufacturer of the failed device or an independent laboratory, skilled in failure analysis of semiconductor devices.References:
The physical process that created the failure mechanism.References:
failure cross section
The number of failures detected per unit beam fluence.References:
failure kineticsThe characteristics of failure for a given physical failure mechanism, including (where applicable) acceleration factor, derating curve, activation energy, median life, standard deviation, characteristic life, instantaneous failure rate, etc. References: JEP143B.01, 6/08
The physical, chemical, electrical, or other process that has led to a nonconformance.References:
failure mechanism from assembly
A physical failure mechanism in which all products with the same assembly technology, including assembly material, assembly construction, and package type, and built on the same assembly line are treated as a homogeneous population for the purpose of statistical reliability monitoring independent of fabrication process and line.References:
failure mechanism from fabrication processes
A physical failure mechanism in which all products with the same wafer fabrication process, design rules, and processing line are treated as a homogeneous population for the purpose of statistical reliability monitoring independent of package technology, material, construction, and type.References:
failure mode (1) (general)
The way in which a failure mechanism manifests itself in a failing component.
(2) (in a BGA ball shear test): The type or location of failure observed after the solder ball is sheared.References:
failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)
(1) A disciplined analysis of possible failure modes on the basis of seriousness, probability of occurrence, and likelihood of detection.
(2) A systematized group of activities intended to recognize, evaluate, and prioritize the potential failure of a product or process and its effects, and to identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the chance of the potential failure occurring, listed in the order of effect on the customer.
(3) A disciplined technique to identify and prevent potential failure modes. The FMEA provides a structured analysis in order to assess the probability of occurrence of a failure as well as the effect of the failure. A fully developed FMEA is continuously maintained and updated to reflect the latest actions and changes to the design or process.References:
failure rate (λ)
The fraction of a population that fails within a specified interval, divided by that interval.
NOTE 1 Standard methods of reporting failure rates of semiconductor devices include 1) percent failed per 1000 hours and 2) FITs.
NOTE 2 The interval may be expressed in operating hours, storage hours, operating cycles, or other units of interval measurement.
NOTE 3 Typically, the term "failure rate" means the instantaneous failure (hazard) rate.
NOTE 4 The statistical upper limit estimate of the failure rate is usually calculated using the χ² (chi-squared) function.References:
failure resistance criterion (RFC); failure resistance (Rfail)
The resistance at or above which the structure is considered to have failed.References:
The subset of the sample that fails the defined test criterion during the stress time.References:
failure-analysis laboratory turnaround time
The time period beginning with receipt in the failure-analysis laboratory of a failed device and associated background information and ending with submission of a failure-analysis report and closure with the customer.References:
failures in time (FITs)
The number of failures per 109 device-hours.References:
fall time (tf) (1) (general)
The time interval between one reference point on a waveform and a second reference point of smaller magnitude on the same waveform.
NOTE The first and second reference points are usually 90% and 10%, respectively, of the steady‑state amplitude of the waveform existing before the transition, measured with respect to the steady‑state amplitude existing after the transition.
(2) (of an analog integrated circuit): For a step-function change of the input signal level, the time interval between the end of the delay time (normally 90%) and that instant at which the magnitude of the output signal first passes through a specified value (normally 10%) close to its final value. (Ref. IEC 747‑3.)
(3) (of a digital integrated circuit): Synonym for "transition time, high-to-low level".
(4) (of a transistor): (A) The time interval during which the amplitude of the trailing edge of a pulse decreases from 90% to 10% of its maximum amplitude.
(B) Synonym for "current fall time, tfi".References:
fall time charge (Qrrf)
That part of the recovered charge that is recovered from the diode during the reverse recovery fall time.
NOTE The time intervals trrf and trrr are defined so that their sum is equal to the reverse recovery time trr, whereas the recovered charge Qrr is defined for an integration time ti. As a consequence, the sum of the partial charges Qrrf and Qrrr will differ from Qrr unless trr equals ti.References:
Synonym for "inadvertent-write protection".References: