See "port A; port B".
See "port A; port B".
See "anode terminal".
A shortened form of a word or expression.
Synonym for "total error".
The maximum junction temperature of an operating device, beyond which damage (latent or otherwise) may occur.
The maximum junction or ambient temperature of an operating device as listed in its data sheet and beyond which damage (latent or otherwise) may occur.
NOTE Manufacturers may also specify maximum case temperatures for specific packages.
The maximum voltage that may be applied to a device, beyond which damage (latent or otherwise) may occur.
Synonym for "maximum rating".
A BiCMOS series that includes devices whose input logic levels are TTL-compatible and whose outputs are specified at TTL levels.
The duration of the accelerated ELF test.
An error rate obtained in the presence of an ionizing radiation source.
For a given failure mechanism, the ratio of the time it takes for a certain fraction of the population to fail, following application of one stress or use condition, to the corresponding time at a more severe stress or use condition.
NOTE 1 Times are generally derived from modeled time-to-failure distributions (lognormal, Weibull, exponential, etc.).
NOTE 2 Acceleration factors can be calculated for temperature, electrical, mechanical, environmental, or other stresses that can affect the reliability of a device.
NOTE 3 Acceleration factors are a function of one or more of the basic stresses that can cause one or more failure mechanisms. For example, a plot of the natural log of the time-to-failure for a cumulative constant percentage failed (e.g., 50%) at multiple stress temperatures as a function of 1/kT, the reciprocal of the product of Boltzmann’s constant in electronvolts per kelvin and the absolute temperature in kelvins, is linear if one and only one failure mechanism is involved. The best-fit linear slope is equal to the apparent activation energy in electronvolts.
NOTE 4 The abbreviation AF is often used in place of the symbol A.
The acceleration factor due to the presence of some stress (e.g., current density, electric field, humidity, temperature cycling).
The acceleration factor due to changes in temperature.
NOTE 1 This is the acceleration factor most often referenced. The Arrhenius equation for reliability is commonly used to calculate the acceleration factor that applies to the acceleration of time-to-failure distributions for microcircuits and other semiconductor devices:
AT = λT1/ λT2 = exp[(-Ea/k)(1/T1 - 1/T2)]
Ea is the activation energy (eV);
k is Boltzmann's constant (8.62 × 10-5 eV/K);
T1 is the absolute temperature of test 1 (K);
T2 is the absolute temperature of test 2 (K);
λT1 is the observed failure rate at test temperature T1 (h-1);
λT2 is the observed failure rate at the test temperature T2 n(h-1).
NOTE 2 Other acceleration factors can be calculated for electrical, mechanical, environmental, and other stresses that can affect the reliability of a device. Acceleration factors can be a function of one or more of the basic stresses. A plot of the reciprocal of absolute temperature, 1/T (K), versus the log of percent failed is linear for the lognormal distribution.
NOTE 3 λs = λt ∙ AT, where λs is the quoted (predicted) system failure rate at some system temperature Ts and λt is the observed failure rate at some test temperature Tt, and AT is the temperature acceleration factor due to the change from Tt to Ts.
The acceleration factor due to changes in voltage.
A mathematical formulation of the relationship between (1) the rate (speed) of a degradation mechanism or the time-to-failure and (2) the conditions or stresses that caused the degradation.
A sampling inspection or series of sampling inspections used to determine the suitability of a lot of material for shipment.
The maximum number of nonconforming components in the sample for which acceptance of the lot is allowed under the sampling plan.
The time interval between the application of a specific input pulse and the availability of valid signals at an output.
A circuit that produces, from an ac input, an ac output that is proportional to a control input.
A register in which one operand of an operation can be stored and subsequently replaced by the result of another operation. (Ref. IEC 824.)
The difference between the sample estimate and the population parameter being estimated.
The maximum transient or pulse voltage amplitude of extraneous signal that can be algebraically added to the noise-free worst-case input level without causing the output voltage to deviate from the allowable logic voltage level.
Acoustic data collected at the smallest X-Y-Z region defined by the limitations of the given acoustic microscope. An A-mode display contains amplitude and phase/polarity information as a function of time of flight at a single point in the X-Y plane.
Example of A-mode display
Acoustic data collected along an X-Z or Y-Z plane versus depth (Z) using a reflective acoustic microscope. A B-mode scan contains amplitude and phase/polarity information as a function of time of flight at each point along the scan line. A B-mode scan furnishes a two-dimensional (cross-sectional) description along a scan line (X or Y).
Example of B-mode display (bottom half of picture on left)
Acoustic data collected in an X-Y plane at depth Z using a reflective acoustic microscope. A C-mode scan contains amplitude and phase/polarity information at each point in the scan plane. A C-mode scan furnishes a two-dimensional (area) image of echoes arising from reflections at a particular depth (Z).
Example of C-mode display
Acoustic data collected in an X-Y plane throughout the depth (Z) using a through-transmission acoustic microscope. A through-transmission mode scan contains only amplitude information at each point in the scan plane. A through-transmission scan furnishes a two-dimensional (area) image of transmitted ultrasound through the complete thickness/depth (Z) of the sample or component.
Example of through-transmission display
A terminal that is to be connected to the ac circuit.
The process of verifying the specified timing of a device.
NOTE Testing of propagation delays, minimum setup and hold times, minimum pulse durations, etc., can be performed by using test vectors applied at the specified operating frequency of the device. Propagation delays of critical logic paths for system operation can be measured individually.
The excess free energy over the ground state that must be acquired by an atomic or molecular system in order that a particular process can occur.
NOTE The activation energy is used in the Arrhenius equation for the thermal acceleration of physical reactions. The term "activation energy" is not applicable when describing thermal acceleration of time-to-failure distributions.
See "circuit element, active".
Desiccant that is either fresh (new) or has been baked according to the manufacturer's recommendations to renew it to original specifications.
A device in which at least one circuit element is an active circuit element.
See "circuit element, active".
A bipolar (three-state or totem-pole) output whose source-current capability significantly exceeds its sink-current capability.
A bipolar (three-state or totem-pole) output whose sink-current capability significantly exceeds its source-current capability.
The time it takes for the structure resistance to reach or exceed Rfail while the structure is under stress from the isothermal test algorithm.
The difference between the peak values of the ac voltages at the two outputs when the circuit is operating in the maximum-output-voltage-swing condition.
See "analog-to-digital [A/D] converter".
(1) A character or group of characters that identifies a register, a particular part of storage, or some other data source or destination. (Ref. ANSI X3.172.)
(2) To refer to a device or a data item by its address. (Ref. ANSI X3.172.)
The pins that are multiplexed three ways to serve as address input, data input, and data output pins. When the address data input/output numbering is significant for device operation, the addresses are numbered beginning with 0.
Those inputs that select (address) a particular cell or set of cells within a memory array for presentation on the device outputs. The integer (n) serves to differentiate the address inputs, one from another. When the address number is significant for device operation, the addresses are numbered beginning with 0.
An input that, when true, allows the input address to be entered into a register and, when false, causes the address state previously entered to be latched.
A register that is used to hold an address. (Ref. IEC 824.)
See "address data input/output".
A source of charged air molecules (ions).
See "address latch enable".
Synonym for "registration mark".
The number of alpha particles that decay in an alpha source per unit time.
NOTE The preferred SI unit is the becquerel (Bq); to convert from the curie, multiply by 3.7 × 1010 (exactly).
See "arithmetic and logic unit".
The air temperature measured below a device, in an environment of substantially uniform temperature, cooled only by natural air convection and not materially affected by reflective and radiant surfaces.
See "acoustic data, A-mode"
See "address inputs".
A gate whose output signal is a linear function of one or more input signals.
A converter that uniquely represents all analog input values within a specified total input range by a limited number of digital output codes, each of which exclusively represents a fractional part of the total analog input range.
NOTE This quantization procedure introduces inherent errors of ±½ LSB (least significant bit) in the representation because, within this fractional range, only one analog value can be represented free of error by a single digital output code.
An integrated circuit providing the analog part of an analog-to-digital converter.
NOTE Provision of external timing, counting, and arithmetic operations is necessary for implementing a full analog-to-digital converter.
A statistical tool that allows for the comparison of more than two groups of data and provides valid assumptions. Computations of ANOVA involve partitioning total variation into two components: the variation from differences among group "means", and random variations within the groups known as "error". ANOVA provides for reliable results even when certain assumptions are violated.
(1) The p‑type region from which the forward current flows within a semiconductor diode.
NOTE In Schottky diodes, usually the barrier metal replaces the p‑type semiconductor region and the remaining semiconductor region is n‑type; however, some Schottky diodes have been made with the barrier metal replacing the n‑type semiconductor region, in which case the remaining semiconductor region is p‑type.
(2) A circuit element to which positive bias is applied.
NOTE For the purpose of JEP154, when the die is the anode the electron flow is the substrate through the solder bump to the die.
The voltage between the anode and cathode terminals.
NOTE The anode-cathode voltage is called "positive" when the anode potential is higher than the cathode potential and called "negative" when the anode potential is lower than the cathode potential.
Synonym for "forward current".
The terminal connected to the p‑type region of the p‑n junction or, when two or more p‑n junctions are connected in series and have the same polarity, to the extreme p‑type region.
NOTE 1 See note to “anode”.
NOTE 2 This definition does not apply to current-regulator diodes.
NOTE 3 For voltage-reference diodes, any temperature-compensating diodes that may be included shall be ignored in the determination of the anode terminal.
NOTE 4 For unidirectional blocking or low-capacitance ABDs, any rectifier diode(s) that may be included are ignored in the determination of the anode terminal.
(2) (of a current-regulator diode): The terminal to which current flows from the external circuit when the diode is biased to operate as a current regulator.
(3) (of a unidirectional diode thyristor): The terminal to which the current flows from the external circuit when the thyristor is in the on state.
(4) (of a unidirectional triode thyristor): The main terminal to which the principal current flows from the circuit being controlled when the thyristor is in the on state.
NOTE A second anode terminal may be provided for connecting to the control circuit of an n‑gate thyristor.
See "analysis of variance". See also "variance components analysis".
Material that inhibits triboelectric charging.
NOTE The antistatic property of a material is not necessarily correlatable with the resistivity or resistance of the material.
See "average outgoing quality".
(1) An equivalent activation energy on the basis of which the time-to-failure distribution of a complex structure, e.g., a transistor or an integrated circuit, can be estimated.
NOTE 1 Apparent activation energy refers to the apparent shift in the time-to-failure distribution of some product as a function of temperature.
NOTE 2 The apparent activation energy is associated with a distribution of the time to failure for a given mechanism. The summation of the actual physical processes, with various possible thermal activation energies to create the mechanism, is reflected in the distribution.
(2) An equivalent energy value that can be inserted in the Arrhenius equation for reliability to calculate an acceleration factor applicable to changes with temperature of time-to-failure distributions.
NOTE 1 An apparent activation energy is often associated with a specific failure mechanism and time-to-failure distribution for calculating the acceleration factor.
NOTE 2 A composite apparent activation energy is often used to calculate a single acceleration factor, for a given time-to-failure distribution, that is equivalent to the net effect of the various thermal acceleration factors associated with multiple failure mechanisms.
NOTE 3 Various physical thermal activation energies may contribute to the shape of the time-to-failure distribution.
NOTE 4 The term "apparent" is used because Eaa is analogous in use to Ea in the Arrhenius equation; Eaa is used for a time-to-failure distribution, while Ea applies to a chemical thermal reaction rate.
(3) An activation energy that is calculated using the principles of the physical relationship between stress and failure rate but is not directly related to a basic change in physical processes.
NOTE 1 Apparent activation energy may be based on many effects that produce a cumulative result when the device is stressed. It is similar to the concept of activation energy but relates to the probability of not exceeding some measurable attribute.
NOTE 2 A plot of the reciprocal or absolute temperature (1/T(K)) versus the log of percent failed is linear for the lognormal distribution.
The quality and reliability properties of the product required for the specified use conditions.
An integrated circuit developed and produced for a specific application or function and for a single customer.
NOTE ASICs generally use standard cell or gate array design methodology.
An integrated circuit developed and produced for a specific application or function but made available for multiple customers.
The full environmental and/or operating ranges that the application is specified to function within.
The part of a processor that performs arithmetic operations and logic operations. (Ref. IEC 824.)
The part of a processor that performs arithmetic operations. (Ref. IEC 824.)
NOTE This term is sometimes used for a unit that performs both arithmetic and logic operations.
The number of available gates divided by the entire chip area.
NOTE Units are gates per unit area.
Synonym for "gate array integrated circuit".
An equation used to calculate thermal acceleration factors for semiconductor device time-to-failure distributions:
AT = exp [(-Eaa/k) (1/T1 - 1/T2)]
AT is the acceleration factor due to changes in temperature;
Eaa is the apparent activation energy (eV);
k is Boltzmann's constant (8.62 × 10-5 eV/K);
T1 is the absolute temperature of the test (K);
T2 is the absolute temperature of the system (K).
NOTE 1 The original Arrhenius equation (for atomic or molecular processes and chemical reactions) used the gas constant, not an activation energy, in the exponent. The "Arrhenius equation (for reliability)", used to calculate a thermal acceleration factor for a given observed time-to-failure distribution and Eaa, is in the form of the quotient of two Arrhenius equations, so that the acceleration factor for two different temperatures can be calculated.
NOTE 2 λs = λt ∙ AT, where λs is the quoted (predicted) system failure rate at some system temperature Ts and λt is the observed failure rate at some test temperature Tt.
See "auto-load read transfer".
The original, accurately scaled, oversize drawings and plastic overlays of the microcircuit topological layout that are used to produce the master mask plates
NOTE Artwork has largely been supplanted by computer-produced drawings and masks.
See "accelerated soft error rate".
See "application-specific integrated circuit".
The state of a component that has been attached to a second-level assembly.
See "microelectronic assembly".
Synonym for "special cause".
Synonym for "content-addressable memory". (Ref. IEC 748‑2.)
See "application-specific standard product".
The difference between the absolute values of the two full-scale analog values.
A circuit whose changes of state are not controlled by a single clock.
Automatic test equipment.
See "actual time to fail".
Data that result from counting items or classifying items into distinct nonoverlapping categories. Examples are count data (e.g., the number of nonconforming items), ordinal data (e.g., rank: first, second; classification: excellent, good, poor), nominal data (e.g., unordered groupings such as defect type), or pass/fail data.
An input that, when active (low), selects the attribute memory and, when inactive (high), selects the main memory for normal access.
NOTE Attribute memory is a separately accessed section of memory on the card and is generally used to record capacity and other configuration and attribute information. Main memory is used to store user data.
The periodic observation of procedures and performed activities to evaluate compliance with requirements.
The introduction of impurities from the substrate into the epitaxial layer during the process of epitaxy.
A split serial-access memory (SAM) data register transfer in which the transfer into each half is automatically triggered by the state of the tap pointer counter after each half of the SAM register is emptied.
A split serial-access memory (SAM) data register transfer in which the transfer from each half is automatically triggered by the state of the tap pointer counter after each half of the SAM register is filled.
The maximum change in gain expressed in dB that may be achieved by application of a specified range of the dc voltages to the AGC input.
A terminal, other than an ac, dc, or control terminal, that may be provided for a specified purpose.
The total number of potentially usable, unconnected gate equivalents in a given array area.
The peak current reached repetitively during device avalanche in an inductive-load switching circuit.
The peak current reached during device avalanche in a single-pulse unclamped inductive-load switching circuit.
The time duration of device avalanche.
The energy sustained by a device in avalanche per repetitive pulse in an inductive-load switching circuit.
A transient voltage suppressor that is a semiconductor diode with a single p‑n junction (or with multiple p‑n junctions none of which interact) and employs its breakdown characteristics as part of its function.
A light-emitting diode that emits luminous energy when a controlled reverse current in the breakdown region is applied.
The effective (constant) device drain-source breakdown voltage during avalanche. The instantaneous device breakdown voltage will change with junction temperature during a test. VDSX(sus) can be calculated from a measurement of the avalanche duration, tav.
The sum of the sample values divided by the number of sample values. A measure of location used to estimate the population mean.
The nth root of overall charge-transfer efficiency, where n is the number of transfers.
The value of a periodic current averaged over a full cycle unless otherwise specified.
The average dark current per unit area within the active area of the device.
NOTE Depending on the type of device, the active area may be defined as either the area of transfer channel or the overall area including channel-defining regions. Other names used are "average leakage current density" and "average thermal generation current density".
The average value of the virtual junction temperature of a given semiconductor device over an operating cycle.
The ratio of (1) the total output noise power within an output frequency band when the noise temperature of all input terminations is at the reference noise temperature, T0, at all frequencies that contribute to the output noise to (2) that part of (1) caused by the noise of the signal-input termination within the signal-input frequency band. (Ref. IEC 747‑1.)
NOTE 1 The abbreviation is often used in place of symbol ; however, symbol is preferred.
NOTE 2 This ratio may be expressed logarithmically in decibels (dB).
The average lot fraction nonconforming, in parts per million, from a series of lots.
See "pulse duration, average".
The output current averaged over a full cycle from a rectifier with a 50‑Hz or 60‑Hz sinewave input and a 180o conduction angle.
The average temperature rise in the test line, ΔT, divided by power input, ΔP, as a result of passing current through the force terminals of the structure:
θ = ΔT/ΔP.
After convergence to target stress temperature, this parameter is optionally used in the feedback algorithm.
The value of a periodic voltage averaged over a full cycle unless otherwise specified.
See "auto-load write transfer".
The direction from the source of radiant energy, relative to the optical axis, in which the measurement of radiometric and/or spectroradiometric characteristics is performed.
A transient voltage suppressor that is a semiconductor diode with a single p-n junction (or with multiple p-n junctions none of which interact) whose operation depends in part on its breakdown characteristics.
A device having three or more terminals and containing multiple diodes within a single package, with at least one of the diodes being an ABD.NOTE ABD arrays can be classified as 1) devices with multiple discrete semiconductor chips; and 2) devices with multiple diode junctions diffused into a single semiconductor chip.
See “avalanche breakdown diode”.
Contact Julie Carlson, 703-624-9230